Christina Stephenson, 'Reproductive Outsourcing to India: WTO Obligations in the Absence of US National Legislation' (2009) 43 Journal of World Trade pp. 189-208
This article examines the World Trade Organization (WTO) obligations that inhere from US persons or couples contracting with Indian women for gestational surrogacy. Surrogacy contracts are considered in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the differing laws on surrogacy of different US states. By exploring WTO Appellate Body (AB), Panel and GATT Panel decisions, this article endeavors to determine what WTO obligations bind the US in circumstance of cross–border surrogacy contract. This article addresses how the varying state laws on surrogacy affect the WTO obligations of the US in market access, national treatment and most–favoured–nation (MFN) treatment. The article concludes that there are a variety of ways in which the different state laws have the capacity to violate US trade commitments in relation to international surrogacy contracts. In addition, the analysis serves to illuminate the process under which US trade obligations can be scrutinized to determine what commitments are relevant to a service not contemplated in the US Schedule.